Transit in Iran
Introduction
Iran has a long paved road system linking most of its towns and all of its cities. In 2007 the country had 178,152 km (111,000 mi) of roads, of which 66 percent were paved. There were 55 passenger cars for every 1,000 inhabitants. Trains operated on 11,106 km (6,942 mi) of railroad track. The country’s major port of entry is Bandar-Abbas on the Strait of Hormuz. After arriving in Iran, imported goods are distributed throughout the country by trucks and freight trains. The Tehran-Bandar-Abbas railroad, opened in 1995, connects Bandar-Abbas to the railroad system of Central Asia via Tehran and Mashhad. Other major ports include Bandar e-Anzali and Bandar e-Torkeman on the Caspian Sea and Korramshahr and Bandar e-Khomeyni on the Persian Gulf. Dozens of cities have airports that serve passenger and cargo planes. Iran Air, the national airline, was founded in 1962 and operates domestic and international flights. All large cities have mass transit systems using buses, and several private companies provide bus service between cities. Tehran, Mashhad, Shiraz, Tabriz, Ahvaz and Esfahan are in the process of constructing underground mass transit rail lines.
INSTC
International North-South Transport Corridor (INSTC) is a multi modal transportation established in 12 SEP 2000 in St. Petersburg, by Iran, Russia and India for the purpose of promoting transportation cooperation among the Member States. This corridor connects India Ocean and Persian Gulf to the Caspian Sea via Islamic republic of IRAN, and then is connected to St. Petersburg and North European via Russia Federation. Due to this fact that northern neighbors of IRAN do not have access to open water and the cost of transportation is so high by other means, IRAN has got an exceptional privilege by its strategic geographic location.
The INSTC was expanded to include eleven new members, namely: Republic of Azerbaijan, Republic of Armenia, Republic of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Republic of Tajikistan, Republic of Turkey, Republic of Ukraine, Republic of Belarus, Oman, Syria, Bulgaria.
Railways
Total: 11,106 km Broad gauge: 94 km 1.676-m gauge (connected to Pakistan Railways) Standard gauge: 7,162 km 1.435-m gauge (186 km electrified) note: broad-gauge track is employed at the borders with Azerbaijan Republic and Turkmenistan which have 1.524-m broad-gauge rail systems; 41 km of the standard-gauge, electrified track is in suburban service at Tehran (2007).

Railway links with adjacent countries
  • Afghanistan - planned
  • Azerbaijan - break-of-gauge 1435mm/1524mm
  • Armenia - not known - break of gauge 1435mm/1524mm
  • Iraq - part under construction, part planned.
    • one longish link heads directly for the Iraqi capital
    • one short link of about 50km links Khorramshahr to Basra and is due for completion in 2006.
  • Pakistan - break-of-gauge 1435mm/1676mm - missing link from Bam to Zahedan is under construction.
  • Turkey - via Lake Van - train ferry - yes - 1435mm
  • Turkmenistan - break-of-gauge 1435mm/1524mm
Ports and harbors
Abadan , Ahvaz, Bandar Abbas, Bandar-e Anzali (Caspian sea), Bushehr, Bandar-e Emam Khomeyni, Bandar-e Lengeh, Bandar-e Mahshahr, Bandar-e Torkaman (Caspian sea), Chabahar (Bandar-e Beheshti), Kharg island, Lavan island, Sirri island, Khorramshahr (limited operation since November 1992), Noshahr (Caspian sea)
Merchant marine
Total: 143 ships (with a volume of 1,000 gross register tons (GRT) or over) totaling 5,129,056 GRT/8,908,336 metric tons of deadweight (DWT)
Ships by type: bulk carrier 38, cargo ship 48, chemical tanker 4, container ship 14, liquefied gas 1, passenger ship 1, passenger/cargo 4, petroleum tanker 30, roll on/roll off ship 3 (2005)